Numeric character reference

From Academic Kids

A numeric character reference (NCR) is a common markup construct used in SGML and other SGML-based markup languages such as HTML and XML. It consists of a short sequence of characters that, in turn, represent a single character from the Universal Character Set (UCS) or Unicode. NCRs are typically used in to represent characters that are not directly encodable in a particular document. When the document is interpreted by a markup-aware reader, each NCR is treated as if it were the character it represents.


In SGML, HTML, and XML, the following are numeric character references for the Greek capital letter Sigma ("Σ"):



Markup languages are typically defined in terms of UCS or Unicode characters. That is, a document consists, at its most fundamental level of abstraction, of a sequence of characters, which are abstract units that exist independently of any encoding.

Ideally, when the characters of a document utilizing a markup language are encoded for storage or transmission over a network as a sequence of bits, the encoding that is used will be one that supports representing each and every character in the document, if not in the whole of Unicode, directly as a particular bit sequence.

Sometimes, though, for reasons of convenience or due to technical limitations, documents are encoded with an encoding that cannot represent some characters directly. For example, the widely used encodings based on ISO 8859 can only represent, at most, 256 unique characters as one 8-bit byte each.

Documents are rarely, in practice, ever allowed to use more than one encoding internally, so the onus is usually on the markup language to provide a means for document authors to express unencodable characters in terms of encodable ones. This is generally done through some kind of "escaping" mechanism.

The SGML-based markup languages allow document authors to use special sequences of characters from the ASCII range (the first 128 code points of Unicode) to represent, or reference, any Unicode character, regardless of whether the character being represented is directly available in the document's encoding. These special sequences are character references.

Character references that are based on the referenced character's ISO 10646 or Unicode "code point" are called numeric character references. In HTML 4 and in all versions of XHTML and XML, the code point can be expressed either as a decimal (base 10) number or as a hexadecimal (base 16) number. The syntax is as follows:

Character U+0026 (ampersand), followed by character U+0023 (number sign), followed by one of the following choices:

  • one or more decimal digits zero (U+0030) through nine (U+0039); or
  • character U+0078 ("x") followed by one or more hexadecimal digits, which are zero (U+0030) through nine (U+0039), Latin capital letter A (U+0041) through F (U+0046), and Latin small letter a (U+0061) through f (U+0066);

all followed by character U+003A (semicolon). Older versions of HTML disallowed the hexadecimal syntax.

The characters that comprise a numeric character reference can be represented in every character encoding used in computing and telecommunications today, so there is no risk of the reference itself being unencodable.

There is another kind of character reference called a character entity reference, which allows a character to be referred to by a name instead of a number. (Naming a character creates a character entity.) HTML defines some character entities, but not many; all other characters can only included by direct encoding or using NCRs.


The Universal Character Set defined by ISO 10646 is the "document character set" of SGML, HTML 4, so by default, any character in such a document, and any character referenced in such a document, must be in the UCS.

While the syntax of SGML does not prohibit references to unassigned code points, such as , SGML-derived markup languages such as HTML and XML can, and often do, restrict numeric character references to only those code points that are assigned to characters or that have not been permanently left unassigned.

Restrictions may also apply for other reasons. For example, in HTML 4, , which is a reference to a non-printing "form feed" control character, is allowed because a form feed character is allowed. But in XML, the form feed character cannot be used, not even by reference. As another example, €, which is a reference to another control character, is not allowed to be used or referenced in either HTML or XML, but when used in HTML, it is usually not flagged as an error by web browsers—some of which attempt to interpret it as a reference to the character represented by code value 128 in the Windows-1252 encoding: "€", which actually should be represented as €. As a further example, prior to the publication of XML 1.0 Second Edition on October 6, 2000, XML 1.0 was based on an older version of ISO 10646 and prohibited using characters above U+FFFD, except in character data, thus making a reference like 𐀀 (U+10000) illegal. In XML 1.1 and newer editions of XML 1.0, such a reference is allowed, because the available character repertoire was explicitly extended.

Markup languages also place restrictions on where character references can occur.


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