HMG-CoA reductase pathway

From Academic Kids

The HMG-CoA reductase pathway

The HMG-CoA reductase pathway, also known as MVA pathway or mevalonate-dependent (MAD) route, is an important cellular metabolic pathway present in virtually all organisms. It forms hydrophobic molecules for tasks as diverse as cell membrane maintenance, hormones, protein anchoring and N-glycosylation.

Contents

Regulation and feedback

Several key enzymes can be activated through DNA transcriptional regulation on activation of SREBP (Sterol Regulatory Element Binding Protein 1 and 2). This intracellular sensor detects low cholesterol levels and stimulates endogenous production by the HMG-CoA reductase pathway, as well as increasing lipoprotein uptake by up-regulating the LDL receptor. Regulation of this pathway is also achieved by controlling the rate of translation of the mRNA, degradation of reductase and phosphorylation.

For more information on regulation, see HMG-CoA reductase

Pharmacology

A number of drugs targets the HMG-CoA reductase pathway:

Alternative

Plants have two pathways to create Isoprenoids: this one and the methylerythritol phosphate (MEP) pathway (also called MVA independent pathway) in plastids.

Reactions

  • Acetyl-CoA condenses with acetoacetyl-CoA to form 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl CoA (HMG-CoA). This reaction is catalyzed by the enzyme HMG-CoA synthase.

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Cholesterol-Synthesis-Reaction1.png
Image:Cholesterol-Synthesis-Reaction1.png

  • HMG-CoA is reduced to mevalonate by NADPH. This reaction occurs in the cytosol. It is the committed step in cholesterol synthesis, which is why the enzyme catalyzing the reaction, HMG-CoA reductase, is a target of statins.

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  • Mevalonate to 5-phosphomevalonate, catalyzed by the enzyme mevalonate kinase:

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Image:Cholesterol-Synthesis-Reaction3.png

  • 5-phosphomevalonate to 5-pyrophosphomevalonate, catalyzed by the enzyme phosphomevalonate kinase:

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Image:Cholesterol-Synthesis-Reaction4.png

  • Mevalonate-5-pyrophosphate to 3-isopentenyl pyrophosphate (IPP), catalyzed by the enzyme mevalonate-5-pyrophosphate decarboxylase (see also HIDS):

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Cholesterol-Synthesis-Reaction5.png
Image:Cholesterol-Synthesis-Reaction5.png

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Image:Cholesterol-Synthesis-Reaction6.png

  • 3-Isopentenyl pyrophosphate is isomerized to dimethylallyl pyrophosphate, catalyzed by the enzyme isopentenyl pyrophosphate isomerase:

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Cholesterol-Synthesis-Reaction7.png
Image:Cholesterol-Synthesis-Reaction7.png


Prenyl transferase (also called farnesyl pyrophosphate synthase) catalyzes sequential condensation reactions: -

  • Dimethylallyl pyrophosphate reacts with 3-isopentenyl pyrophosphate to form geranyl pyrophosphate:

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Cholesterol-Synthesis-Reaction8.png
Image:Cholesterol-Synthesis-Reaction8.png

  • Geranyl pyrophosphate itself reacts with 3-isopentenyl pyrophosphate to form farnesyl pyrophosphate

Missing image
Cholesterol-Synthesis-Reaction9.png
Image:Cholesterol-Synthesis-Reaction9.png

The bisphosphonates inhibit the enzyme prenyl transferase (and also farnesyltranstransferase).

  • Two molecules of farnesyl pyrophosphate condense with reduction by NADPH to form squalene - by squalene synthase;

Missing image
Cholesterol-Synthesis-Reaction10.png
Image:Cholesterol-Synthesis-Reaction10.png

  • Squalene is reduced by NADPH to 2,3-oxidosqualene (squalene epoxide) - by squalene monooxygenase;

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Cholesterol-Synthesis-Reaction11.png
Image:Cholesterol-Synthesis-Reaction11.png

  • 2,3-oxidosqualene is converted to a protosterol cation and finally to lanosterol, catalyzed by the enzyme lanosterol synthase:

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Cholesterol-Synthesis-Reaction12.png
Image:Cholesterol-Synthesis-Reaction12.png

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Cholesterol-Synthesis-Reaction13.png
Image:Cholesterol-Synthesis-Reaction13.png

19 further reaction steps convert lanosterol into cholesterol. Missing image
Cholesterol-Synthesis-Reaction14.png
Image:Cholesterol-Synthesis-Reaction14.png

References

  1. Berg, J.M., J.L. Tymoczko, and L. Stryer, Biochemistry. 5th ed. 2002, New York: W.H. Freeman. xxxviii, 974, [976] (various pagings)
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