Teff

From Academic Kids

Teff

Scientific classification
Kingdom:Plantae
Division:Magnoliophyta
Class:Magnoliopsida
Order:Poales
Family:Poaceae
Genus:Eragrostis
Species:E. tef

Template:Taxobox section binomial botany

Teff or Tef, Eragrostis tef, (Amharic ጤፍ) is a species of lovegrass native to northern Africa. It is similar to millet in nutrition and in cooking, but the seed is much smaller.

Teff is an important food grain in Ethiopia and Eritrea, where it is used to make injera, and more or less in India and Australia. Because of its small seeds (less than 1 mm diameter), one can hold enough to sow a whole field in one hand. This property makes teff particularly suited to a seminomadic lifestyle.

Contents

Common Names

  • English: Teff, Lovegrass, Annual Bunch Grass, Warm Season Annual Bunch Grass
  • Amharic: Tef
  • Oromo: Tafi
  • Tigrigna: Taf
  • French: mil éthiopien
  • Also written as: Ttheff, Tteff, Thaff, Tcheff, Thaft, Tcheff.

(Anon. 1887)

The word tef is thought to originate from the Amharic word teffa, which means "lost" (due to small size of the grain), or from the Arabic word tahf used by Semites in South Arabia.

Origin

Teff is believed to have originated in Ethiopia between 4000 and 1000 BC. Teff seeds were discovered in a pyramid thought to date back to 3359 BC. The grain has been widely cultivated and used in the countries of Ethiopia, India and its colonies, and Australia.

Ecology

Teff is adapted to environments ranging from drought stress to water logged soil conditions. Maximum teff production occurs at altitudes of 1800 to 2100 m, growing season rainfall of 450 to 550 mm, with a temperature range of 10 to 27 °C. Teff is day length sensitive and flowers best during 12 hours of daylight.

Nutrition

Teff has a high concentration of different nutrients. This grain has a very high calcium content, and contains high levels of phosphorus, iron, copper, aluminum, barium, and thiamin. A big advantage, according to Soil & Crop, is the fact that the iron from teff is easily absorbed by the body. It could be used for top sports because of this. Teff is high in protein. It is considered to have an excellent amino acid composition (including all 8 essential amino acids for humans) and has lysine levels higher than wheat or barley. Because of this variety, it stimulates the flora of the large intestine. Teff is high in carbohydrates and fiber. It contains no gluten, so it is appropriate for those with gluten intolerance or Celiac disease.

Cooking

[1] (http://www.recipesource.com/cgi-bin/search?search_string=teff) [2] (http://www.ameritech.net/users/macler/teff.html) [3] (http://www.teffco.com/recipes.html)

Geographic use

Ethiopia

Teff produces up to 2/3 of the total food provision of Ethiopia.

Europe

The cultivation of teff has been patented throughout Europe by Soil & Company.

Netherlands

In the Netherlands some farmers needed a new grain species and after a drink and the consultancy of an inventor's office, teff has been used and succeeded as a new grain. In 2003, 150 farmers were welcoming teff. By an estimation of S&C, in 2006 there could be 50 km² of this African grain in the Netherlands.

United States of America

The Teff Company of Caldwell, Idaho has been growing teff and supplying the Ethio- and Eritrean-American communities for 25 years. They have demonstrated that teff is gluten-free, and are supplying the gluten-free market in the United States and Canada. The Teff Company has also been engaged in teff research with academic researchers, and has freely shared the information for the further development of teff. (Nat'l Academy of Sciences) Teff has also been grown in limited quantities in South Dakota.

References

National Academy of Sciences. olume I: Grains (http://www.nap.edu/openbook/0309049903/html/). Washington, D.C.: National Academies Press, 1996. ISBN 0-309-04990-3

External links

Dutch

English

nl:Teff fr:mil éthiopien

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